Definition: "An ergogenic aid is any substance or phenomenon that enhances performance "
Optimal cardiovascular health requires both omega-3 fatty acids from plants and fish
Three times the researchers gave the subjects a diet that contained just enough energy to stay on weight for a 4 weeks period. The energy came from about 30 percent from fat and 60 percent from carbohydrates.
On one occasion, the subjects received a 'normal' amount of omega-3 fatty acids within [Control diet] - which is way to low according to nutritional scientists.
On another occasion, the researchers got the test subjects to eat a portion of walnuts without changing the calorie intake [Walnut diet]. Yet another time the subjects were given a portion of salmon twice a week [Fish diet].
Adding salmon to the diet did not have that effect. Salmon even increased the LDL level.
On the other hand, salmon increased the 'good cholesterol' HDL, and reduced the concentration of triglycerides. These effects more than compensated for the negative effect on LDL, and improved the cardiovascular health of the test subjects - despite the increase in LDL.
"One of the dietary strategies to increase a specific nutrient in the diet is to promote the inclusion of specific foods that contain these bioactive nutrients. Individuals who choose to exclude fish from their diet because they are vegetarians or for other reasons may need to consider alternate sources of EPA and DHA - like microalgae oils and DHA-enriched eggs."
"Alternatively, because walnuts seem to influence different blood lipid fraction compared with fatty fish, it would be prudent for those who do eat fatty fish regularly to consider including plant foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids."
"The overall effect on blood lipids when fatty fish and walnuts or other foods rich in EPA/DHA and ALA are combined remains to be determined in future studies and would provide valuable information for use in clinical settings."