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17.02.2018


Betaine forces fat cells to eat themselves

Supplementation with a hefty dose of betaine inhibits the growth of fat cells. According to an animal study that researchers from Sichuan Agricultural University published in Nutrients, betaine allows the body to build up more lean body mass while inhbiting the growth less fat mass. This happens when the body receives more energy than it burns, but also when caloric intake and burning are perfectly coordinated.

Study
The researchers experimented with different groups of mice. Some groups were fed with extra fat, other groups received standard feed. Some groups received betaine through their drinking water, others did not.

The human equivalent of the dose used by the researchers was 10-15 grams of betaine per day. That's more than the 2-3 grams that most supplement makers recommend. We do not know whether 10 grams of betaine per day is harmful. The only side effect of high doses of betaine that we could find is an increase in the production of stomach acid.

Results
Of course, mice that were fattened [HFD] became fatter than mice that received normal feed [NCW].


Betaine forces fat cells to eat themselves


In mice that received normal feed, supplementation with betaine [HC-bet] had a slimming effect. In mice that got more energy in their food than they burned [H-BET], too. It seems that betaine caused the animals to use the excess energy to increase their lean body mass instead of their fat mass.


Betaine forces fat cells to eat themselves


Betaine forces fat cells to eat themselves


Betaine forces fat cells to eat themselves


In the animals that were fattened, betaine kept the concentration of triglycerides [TG] and the 'bad cholesterol' LDL low.


Betaine forces fat cells to eat themselves


When the researchers experimented with 3T3-L1 fat cells in in vitro, they saw that betaine inhibited their growth. Betaine increased the activity of the growth enzymes cyclin-D and -E, and activated the growth inhibitory genes P53 and P21. [The latter two genes also inhibit the growth of cancer cells, and stimulate the production of mitochondria in numerous cell types.]


Betaine forces fat cells to eat themselves


Betaine forces fat cells to eat themselves


In the fat cells, betaine reduced the activity of enzymes that store calories as fat. In the fat cells the activity of enzymes that burn fat, however, went up. Betaine is therefore a 'fat browner', just like curcumin and green tea. Maybe you could stack betaine with those substances...


Betaine forces fat cells to eat themselves


Betaine forces fat cells to eat themselves


Conclusion
The present study showed that betaine treatment not only significantly inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro, but also remarkably suppressed accumulation of white adipose tissues [...] in vivo", the researchers wrote.

"Following betaine supplementation, high fat diet-fed mice displayed a significant decrease in plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, such as triglycerides and LDL."

"Additionally, the authors found [...] reduced expression of some genes promoted lipid synthesis in white adipose tissue of high fat diet-fed mice."

"Therefore, dietary betaine supplementation can be considered as a possible therapeutic approach for obesity and hyperglycemia."

Source:
Nutrients. 2018 Jan 26;10(2).

More:
Betaine may make not only muscles but also bone tissue stronger 11.08.2017
Betaine stimulates muscle growth via IGF-1 20.02.2014
The anabolic effect of betaine 04.11.2013

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